Cacique Candela/Red-bellied Grackle/Hypopyrrhus pyrohypogaster [e]

Hypopyrrhus pyrohypogaster La Ceja

Nombre en español: Cacique Candela

Nombre en ingles: Red-bellied Grackle

Nombre científico: Hypopyrrhus pyrohypogaster

Familia: Icteridae

Foto: Wilmer Quiceno

Audio : Andrew Spencer

The cacique candela o turpial de vientre rojo3​ (Hypopyrrhus pyrohypogaster) es una especie de ave de la familia Icteridae, monotípica del género Hypopyrrhus y endémica de Colombia.

Vive en la canopia y los bordes del bosque de montaña,​ entre los 1.200 y 2.700 m de altitud.​ Está amenazado por pérdida de hábitat.

El macho mide 31,5 cm de longitud y la hembra 27 cm.​ Plumaje negro mate, en la cabeza, el cuello y la nuca con ejes brillantes; vientre rojo brillante. El pico y las patas son negros.​ El iris es amarillo.

Se alimentan de insectos y arañas, que buscan en los troncos de los árboles, el rastrojo bajo y en el suelo bajo las hojas secas. También consumen frutos.

En la época de reproducción los grupos mayores, que generalmente están integrados por 6 a 8 individuos, se segmentan y cada pareja junto con un ayudante, que podría ser un juvenil de una nidada anterior, construyen y cuidan el nido, a unos 9 m del suelo, colocado en un tridente invertido sobre una rama terminal. El nido tiene forma de cuenco de 13 cm de diámetro, 8 cm de profundidad y 17 cm de altura. Tanto el macho como la hembra, como el ayudante, incuban los huevos. Los pichones permanecen 14 a 17 días en el nido, pero pueden depender algunos días más de sus padres.

Red-bellied grackle

The red-bellied grackle (Hypopyrrhus pyrohypogaster) is a species of bird in the family Icteridae. Its genus, Hypopyrrhus, is monotypic.

One of the grackles, it is endemic to Colombia where its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. The species is threatened by habitat destruction and the International Union for Conservation of Nature considers it to be a «vulnerable species».
The male red-bellied grackle grows to about 30 cm (12 in) and the female about 27 cm (10.6 in). The sexes are similar in appearance being entirely black apart from a red belly and red under-tail coverts. The bill is conical in shape and the irises are white or yellow. When held in the hand it is possible to see that the feathers of the head, neck and throat have shiny, naked shafts and thick, narrow webs.

Distribution and habitat

Taxidermied bird at the Natural History Museum of Geneva
The red-bellied grackle is endemic to Colombia where it is found in all three Andean ranges at altitudes of 800 to 2,400 m (2,600 to 7,900 ft) above sea level. Its natural habitat is tropical forest, but the trees are increasingly being felled for timber and to make way for agriculture, and little virgin forest remains within its range. However, it can tolerate some disturbance and can be seen at forest edges, in plantations, on cleared land, in scrub, over pasture and beside roads.

Except during the breeding season, the red-bellied grackle is usually seen in small, noisy groups in the canopy. Sometimes these are mixed flocks with other grackles, and sometimes they may include Oropendolas. The grackles feed on fruit and insects, scrambling about among the branches and foliage, and sometimes clinging upside down. Breeding takes place between March and August. The nest is a cup-shaped structure in the fork of a tree, loosely composed of sticks and dead leaves. The eggs are greenish-grey, blotched and streaked with dark brown and lilac. The giant cowbird (Molothrus oryzivorus) sometimes lays its eggs in the grackle’s nest.

H. pyrohypogaster was formerly classified as «endangered» by the International Union for Conservation of Nature but in 2012 the threat level was lowered to «vulnerable». This is on the basis that, although its forest habitat remains under pressure, it has been found at some new locations where it was not known before. The total population is now estimated to be in the range 2,500 to 9,999 individuals, occupying a land area of about 3,700 km2 (1,428.6 sq mi). The population is believed to be declining due to the continuing decline of the forest cover in the area and the fragmentation of its habitat.

Hypopyrrhus pyrohypogaster


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