Nombre en español: Águila Arpía
Nombre en ingles: Harpy Eagle
Nombre científico: Harpia harpyja
Foto: Carlos Mario Bran
Audio: Olivier Claessens (xeno-canto)
La arpía mayor, águila harpía o simplemente harpía (Harpia harpyja) es una especie de ave accipitriforme de la familia Accipitridae que vive en la zona neotropical. Es el águila más grande del Hemisferio Occidental y del Hemisferio Austral, y la única especie del género Harpia. Su hábitat es el bosque lluvioso. No se reconocen subespecies.
El águila harpía es el ave nacional de Panamá y la especie símbolo de la diversidad biológica de Ecuador.
Se le llama también águila coronada, aunque tal nombre es dado también a otras especies, en particular a Stephanoaetus coronatus y a Harpyhaliaetus coronatus.
El género Harpia, junto con Harpyopsis y Morphnus forman la subfamilia Harpiinae.
Es la rapaz más poderosa; las dimensiones promedio de la hembra de la arpía mayor son 100 cm de largo, 200 cm de envergadura y un peso de 9 kg. El macho tiene dimensiones más pequeñas: hasta 196 cm de envergadura y un peso aproximado de 8 kg. Es una de las águilas más grandes del mundo, siendo superada en envergadura (distancia entre los extremos de las alas) solamente por el águila monera (Pithecophaga jefferyi), el águila marcial (Polemaetus bellicosus, 206.5 cm), el águila real (Aquila chrysaetos, 207 cm), el águila audaz (Aquila audax, 210 cm), el pigargo gigante (Haliaeetus pelagicus, 212.5 cm) y el pigargo europeo (Haliaeetus albicilla, 218.5 cm), aunque generalmente el cuerpo de la arpía mayor es más robusto y más largo que el de las anteriores.
Los adultos de ambos géneros tienen plumaje de similar color, que consiste de tres tonalidades básicas: gris en la cabeza; gris muy oscuro, casi negro en algunos ejemplares, en la doble cresta en la cabeza, el cuello, parte superior del cuerpo y de las alas; y gris muy claro, casi blanco, en la parte inferior del cuerpo y de las alas. En las patas tiene unas líneas oscuras. En la cola tiene franjas del gris oscuro y del gris muy pálido. El pico es gris muy oscuro. La piel en las patas es amarilla clara. Las uñas son de color gris muy oscuro. Posee un pico fuerte y garras que pueden alcanzar los 15 cm de largo.
Pueden vivir hasta los 40 años. Sus ojos tienen el iris color chocolate y en ocasiones este puede ser de color amarillo. Existen diferencias entre las aves jóvenes y adultas: las últimas presentan una banda ancha negra. Estas aves forman parejas de por vida.
La edad reproductiva de la arpía mayor comienza a los cuatro o cinco años. Construyen sus nidos con ramas y palos entrecruzados en las copas de árboles altos (de 20 a 40 m del suelo, aproximadamente). En estos nidos las hembras depositan uno o dos huevos, y tiene una camada cada dos o tres años. Los huevos eclosionarán a los 56 días. La cría es alimentada diariamente, pero el suministro de alimentos puede suspenderse por una semana, para luego ser reiniciado. Las crías necesitan más de cuatro años para completar el plumaje de adulto.
Es una especie superpredadora. Sus presas favoritas son los mamíferos arborícolas como varias especies de monos, perezosos, coatíes, etc. También se alimenta de aves y reptiles, como las iguanas verdes, serpientes, etc. Pese a su porte tiene la habilidad de penetrar las frondas y espesos follajes para cazar a sus presas, siendo uno de los animales proporcionalmente más fuertes del mundo (levanta y lleva en vuelo tres veces su propio peso). Prefieren las densas selvas vírgenes, por lo que la pérdida de su hábitat la pone en peligro de extinción. Su morfología está altamente adaptada al hábitat en el que caza. en efecto, sus alas, proporcionalmente respecto a su tronco, no son tan largas (lo que le permite volar ágilmente dentro de las copas densas de los árboles) aunque sí anchas; la cresta y corona de plumas, además de señal fanérica, tiene la función de redirigir los sonidos hacia sus oídos, que sumados a unos ojos de aguda vista preparados para la penumbra le permiten percibir rápidamente los menores movimientos de sus presas entre las espesas frondas. Ocupa el dosel superior de los bosques, y acostumbra estar cerca de los «barreros» (sitios con sal aflorante), donde se encuentran varias especies de animales, sobre todo mamíferos, que constituyen parte de su dieta. También se alimenta de crías de venado, pecaríes, armadillos, y otros.
Es rápida y certera en sus ataques, siendo capaz de llevar hasta las copas de los árboles una cría de cerdo silvestre. En la naturaleza, el águila harpía caza apenas dos veces por semana, siendo este el motivo de que elija presas de gran porte.
Se distribuye en diferentes áreas, se extiende desde el Sureste de México, pasando por Centroamérica (extendiéndose también en Belice, Guatemala, Honduras, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, y en Panamá), en Colombia, Guyana, Venezuela, Surinam y Guyana Francesa hasta el Sureste de Brasil y Paraguay y el Norte de Argentina. También en otras ocasiones se le llegó a ver en Formosa, Salta y en Jujuy.
Vive tanto en la vertiente atlántica como en la pacífica.
Estado de conservación
La Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (UICN) la enlista en su libro rojo como una especie casi amenazada.
En Panamá, por su condición de ave nacional, está protegida por instituciones como ANCON, ANAM y el Instituto Smithsonian de Investigaciones Tropicales, entre otras. En Ecuador existe un programa de conservación que trabaja especialmente para ella y para las comunidades que comparten sus territorios con esta águila: Programa de Conservación del Águila Harpía en Ecuador. En 1992 fue lanzado el Proyecto de Conservación del Águila Arpía en Venezuela, esta iniciativa tiene como principal objetivo la preservación de la población (en su ambiente natural) de estas águilas en Venezuela, así como también lograr la creación y protección de corredores ecológicos, que permitan el intercambio genético entre las diversas poblaciones del país. Este proyecto conservacionista concentra sus actividades en la Reserva forestal de Imataca, estado Bolívar. El Ministro de Ecosocialismo Ramón Velásquez Araguayan considera que la especie está en peligro de extinción y se hacen ingentes esfuerzos en conservarla.
El Harpia harpyja fue declarado monumento natural de la provincia de Misiones en Argentina mediante la ley n.° 3320 sancionada el 22 de agosto de 1996.
La llaman “detective ecológico” ya que es un indicador de la salud de la flora y fauna del lugar donde permanece, debido a que se encuentra en la cima de la cadena alimenticia. La presencia de esta ave en un lugar indica que todas las especies presentes en el ecosistema están en total equilibrio.
- Toma su nombre de las harpías, monstruos mitad mujer mitad ave de la mitología griega.
- El águila arpía aparece en el anverso de los billetes venezolanos (de forma vertical) de BsF. 10,00 y BsF. 2000,00 para sensibilizar a la población y fomentar su conservación.
- Aparte de ser el ave nacional de Panamá, también aparece en su escudo de armas.
- En la Amazonía peruana pueden cazar loros y guacamayos y se han visto casos de capturas de perezosos de hasta 6 kilogramos.
- Sus poderosas garras, en las hembras, pueden llegar a crecer hasta igualar el tamaño de las garras de un oso pardo.
The harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) is a neotropical species of eagle. It is also called the American harpy eagle to distinguish it from the Papuan eagle, which is sometimes known as the New Guinea harpy eagle or Papuan harpy eagle. It is the largest and most powerful raptor found in the rainforest, and among the largest extant species of eagles in the world. It usually inhabits tropical lowland rainforests in the upper (emergent) canopy layer. Destruction of its natural habitat has caused it to vanish from many parts of its former range, and it is nearly extirpated in Central America. In Brazil, the harpy eagle is also known as royal-hawk (in Portuguese: gavião-real).
The harpy eagle was first described by Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae in 1758 as Vultur harpyja, after the mythological beast harpy. The only member of the genus Harpia, the harpy eagle is most closely related to the crested eagle (Morphnus guianensis) and the New Guinea harpy eagle (Harpyopsis novaeguineae), the three composing the subfamily Harpiinaewithin the large family Accipitridae. Previously thought to be related, the Philippine eagle has been shown by DNA analysisto belong elsewhere in the raptor family, as it is related to the Circaetinae.
The species name harpyja and the word harpy in the common name harpy eagle both come from Ancient Greek hárpuia(ἅρπυια). They refer to the Harpies of Ancient Greek mythology. These were wind spirits that took the dead to Hades, and were said to have a body like an eagle and the face of a human.
The upper side of the harpy eagle is covered with slate-black feathers, and the underside is mostly white, except for the feathered tarsi, which are striped black. A broad black band across the upper breast separates the gray head from the white belly. The head is pale grey, and is crowned with a double crest. The upper side of the tail is black with three gray bands, while the underside of it is black with three white bands. The iris is gray or brown or red, the cere and bill are black or blackish and the tarsi and toes are yellow. The plumage of males and females are identical. The tarsus is up to 13 cm (5.1 in) long.
Female harpy eagles typically weigh 6 to 9 kg (13 to 20 lb). One source states that adult females can weigh up to 10 kg (22 lb). An exceptionally large captive female, «Jezebel», weighed 12.3 kg (27 lb). Being captive, this large female may not be representative of the weight possible in wild harpy eagles due to differences in the food availability. The male, in comparison, is much smaller and weighs only about 4 to 4.8 kg (8.8 to 10.6 lb). Harpy eagles are 86.5–107 cm (2 ft 10 in–3 ft 6 in) long and have a wingspan of 176 to 224 cm (5 ft 9 in to 7 ft 4 in). Among the standard measurements, the wing chord measures 54–63 cm (1 ft 9 in–2 ft 1 in), the tail measures 37–42 cm (1 ft 3 in–1 ft 5 in), the tarsus is 11.4–13 cm (4.5–5.1 in) long, and the exposed culmen from the cere is 4.2 to 6.5 cm (1.7 to 2.6 in).
It is sometimes cited as the largest eagle alongside the Philippine eagle, which is somewhat longer on average, and the Steller’s sea eagle, which is slightly heavier on average. The wingspan of the harpy eagle is relatively small, an adaptation that increases maneuverability in forested habitats and is shared by other raptors in similar habitats. The wingspan of the harpy eagle is surpassed by several large eagles who live in more open habitats, such as those in the Haliaeetus and Aquila genera. The extinct Haast’s eagle was significantly larger than all extant eagles, including the harpy.
This species is largely silent away from the nest. There, the adults give a penetrating, weak, melancholy scream, with the incubating males’ call described as «whispy screaming or wailing». The females’ calls while incubating are similar, but are lower-pitched. While approaching the nest with food, the male calls out «rapid chirps, goose-like calls, and occasional sharp screams». Vocalization in both parents decreases as the nestlings age, while the nestlings become more vocal. The nestlings call chi-chi-chi…chi-chi-chi-chi, seemingly in alarm in response to rain or direct sunlight. When humans approach the nest, the nestlings have been described as uttering croaks, quacks, and whistles.
Distribution and habitat
Rare throughout its range, the harpy eagle is found from Mexico (almost extinct), through Central America and into South America to as far south as Argentina. The eagle is most common in Brazil, where it is found across the entire national territory. With the exception of some areas of Panama, the species is almost extinct in Central America, subsequent to the logging of much of the rainforest there. The harpy eagle inhabits tropical lowland rainforests and may occur within such areas from the canopy to the emergent vegetation. They typically occur below an elevation of 900 m (3,000 ft), but have been recorded at elevations up to 2,000 m (6,600 ft). Within the rainforest, they hunt in the canopy or sometimes on the ground, and perch on emergent trees looking for prey. They do not generally occur in disturbed areas, but regularly visit semiopen forest/pasture mosaic, mainly in hunting forays. Harpies, however, can be found flying over forest borders in a variety of habitats, such as cerrados, caatingas, buriti palm stands, cultivated fields, and cities. They have been found in areas where high-grade forestry is practiced.
The harpy eagle is an actively hunting carnivore and is an apex predator. Adults are near the top of a food chain but are preyed upon by snakes, jaguars and the much smaller ocelot. Its main prey are tree-dwelling mammals and a majority of the diet has been shown to focus on sloths and monkeys. Research conducted by Aguiar-Silva between 2003 and 2005 in a nesting site in Parintins, Amazonas, Brazil, collected remains from prey offered to the nestling by its parents and after sorting them, concluded, in terms of individuals preyed upon, the harpy’s prey basis was composed in 79% by sloths from two species: Bradypus variegatus amounting to 39% of the individual prey base, and Choloepus didactylus to 40%; various monkeys amounted to 11.6% of the same prey base. In a similar research venture in Panama, where a couple of captive-bred subadults was released, 52% of the male’s captures and 54% of the female’s were of two sloth species (Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni). At one Venezuelan nest, the remains comprised sloths. Monkeys regularly taken can include capuchin monkeys, saki monkeys, howler monkeys, titi monkeys, squirrel monkeys, and spider monkeys. Smaller monkeys, such as tamarins and marmosets, are seemingly ignored as prey by this species. At several nest in Guyana, monkeys made up about 37% of the prey remains found at the nests. Similarly, cebid monkeys made up 35% of the remains found at 10 nests in Amazonian Ecuador. Other partially arboreal and even land mammals are also preyed on given the opportunity, including porcupines, squirrels, opossums, anteaters, armadillos, and even relatively large carnivores such as kinkajous, coatis, and tayras. In the Pantanal, a pair of nesting eagles preyed largely on the porcupine (Coendou prehensilis) and the agouti (Dasyprocta azarae). The eagle may also attack bird species such as macaws: At the Parintins research site, the red-and-green macaw made up for 0.4% of the prey base, with other birds amounting to 4.6%.» Other parrots have also been preyed on, as well as cracids such as curassows and other birds like seriemas. Additional prey items reported include reptiles such as iguanas, tejus, and snakes. Snakes up to 5 cm (2.0 in) in diameter have been observed to be cut in half, then the pieces are swallowed whole. On occasion, larger prey such as capybaras, peccaries, and deer are taken and they are usually taken to a stump or low branch and partially eaten, since they are too heavy to be carried whole to the nest. Red brocket deer, a species commonly weighing over 30 kg (66 lb), have been reportedly taken and, in such cases, the eagle may have to tear it into pieces or feed on it at the killing site rather than fly with it, as it would be too heavy. The harpy has been recorded as taking domestic livestock, including chickens, lambs, goats, and young pigs, but this is extremely rare under normal circumstances. They control the population of mesopredators such as capuchin monkeys which prey extensively on bird’s eggs and which (if not naturally controlled) may cause local extinctions of sensitive species.
Harpy eagles routinely take prey weighing more than 7 kg (15 lb). They possess the largest talons of any living eagle. They have been recorded as lifting prey up to equal their own body weight. That allows the birds to snatch a live sloth from tree branches, as well as other huge prey items. Males usually take relatively smaller prey, with a typical range of 0.5 to 2.5 kg (1.1 to 5.5 lb) or about half their own weight. The larger females take larger prey, with a minimum recorded prey weight of around 2.7 kg (6.0 lb). Adult female harpies regularly grab large male howler or spider monkeys or mature sloths weighing 6 to 9 kg (13 to 20 lb) in flight and fly off without landing, an enormous feat of strength. Prey items taken to the nest by the parents are normally medium-sized, having been recorded from 1 to 4 kg (2.2 to 8.8 lb). The prey brought to the nest by males averaged 1.5 kg (3.3 lb), while the prey brought to the nest by females averaged 3.2 kg (7.1 lb).
Sometimes, harpy eagles are «sit-and-wait» predators (common in forest-dwelling raptors). In harpies, this consists of perching and watching for long times from a high perch near an opening, a river, or a salt-lick (where many mammals go to feed for nutrients). The more common hunting technique of the species is perch-hunting, which consists of scanning around for prey activity while briefly perched between short flights from tree to tree. When prey is spotted, the eagle quickly dives and grabs the prey. On occasion, they may also hunt by flying within or above the canopy. They have also been observed tail-chasing, a predation style common to hawks that hunt birds, the genus Accipiter. This comprises the eagle pursuing another bird in flight, rapidly dodging among trees and branches.
In ideal habitats, nests would be fairly close together. In some parts of Panama and Guyana, active nests were located 3 km (1.9 mi) away from one another, while they are within 5 km (3.1 mi) of each other in Venezuela. In Peru, the average distance between nests was 7.4 km (4.6 mi) and the average area occupied by each breeding pairs was estimated at 4,300 ha (11,000 acres). In less ideal areas, with fragmented forest, breeding territories were estimated at 25 km (16 mi). The female harpy eagle lays two white eggs in a large stick nest, which commonly measures 1.2 m (3.9 ft) deep and 1.5 m (4.9 ft) across and may be used over several years. Nests are located high up in a tree, usually in the main fork, at 16 to 43 m (52 to 141 ft), depending on the stature of the local trees. The harpy often builds its nest in the crown of the kapok tree, one of the tallest trees in South America. In many South American cultures, it is considered bad luck to cut down the kapok tree, which may help safeguard the habitat of this stately eagle. The bird also uses other huge trees on which to build its nest, such as the Brazil nut tree. A nesting site found in the Brazilian Pantanal was built on a cambará tree (Vochysia divergens).
No display is known between pairs of eagles, and they are believed to mate for life. A pair of harpy eagles usually only raises one chick every 2–3 years. After the first chick hatches, the second egg is ignored and normally fails to hatch unless the first egg perishes. The egg is incubated around 56 days. When the chick is 36 days old, it can stand and walk awkwardly. The chick fledges at the age of 6 months, but the parents continue to feed it for another 6 to 10 months. The male captures much of the food for the incubating female and later the eaglet, but also takes an incubating shift while the female forages and also brings prey back to the nest. Breeding maturity is not reached until birds are 4 to 6 years of age. Adults can be aggressive toward humans who disturb the nesting site or appear to be a threat to its young.
Status and conservation
Although the harpy eagle still occurs over a considerable range, its distribution and populations have dwindled considerably. It is threatened primarily by habitat loss due to the expansion of logging, cattle ranching, agriculture, and prospecting. Secondarily, it is threatened by being hunted as an actual threat to livestock and/or a supposed one to human life, due to its great size. Although not actually known to prey on humans and only rarely on domestic stock, the species’ large size and nearly fearless behavior around humans reportedly make it an «irresistible target» for hunters. Such threats apply throughout its range, in large parts of which the bird has become a transient sight only; in Brazil, it was all but wiped out from the Atlantic rainforest and is only found in appreciable numbers in the most remote parts of the Amazon basin; a Brazilian journalistic account of the mid-1990s already complained that at the time it was only found in significant numbers in Brazilian territory on the northern side of the Equator. Scientific 1990s records, however, suggest that the harpy Atlantic Forest population may be migratory. Subsequent research in Brazil has established that, as of 2009, the harpy eagle, outside the Brazilian Amazon, is critically endangered in Espírito Santo, São Paulo and Paraná, endangered in Rio de Janeiro, and probably extirpated in Rio Grande do Sul (where there is a recent (March 2015) record for the Parque Estadual do Turvo) and Minas Gerais – the actual size of their total population in Brazil is unknown.
Globally, the harpy eagle is considered Near Threatened by IUCN and threatened with extinction by CITES (appendix I). The Peregrine Fund until recently considered it a «conservation-dependent species», meaning it depends on a dedicated effort for captive breeding and release to the wild, as well as habitat protection, to prevent it from reaching endangered status, but now has accepted the Near Threatened status. The harpy eagle is considered critically endangered in Mexico and Central America, where it has been extirpated in most of its former range; in Mexico, it used to be found as far north as Veracruz, but today probably occurs only in Chiapas in the Selva Zoque. It is considered as Near Threatened or Vulnerable in most of the South American portion of its range; at the southern extreme of its range, in Argentina, it is found only in the Parana Valley forests at the province of Misiones. It has disappeared from El Salvador, and almost so from Costa Rica.
Various initiatives for restoration of the species are in place in various countries. Since 2002, Peregrine Fund initiated a conservation and research program for the harpy eagle in the Darién Provinceboom . A similar—and grander, given the dimensions of the countries involved—research project is occurring in Brazil, at the National Institute of Amazonian Research, through which 45 known nesting locations (updated to 62, only three outside the Amazonian basin and all three inactive) are being monitored by researchers and volunteers from local communities. A harpy eagle chick has been fitted with a radio transmitter that allows it to be tracked for more than three years via a satellite signal sent to the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research. Also, a photographic recording of a nest site in the Carajás National Forest was made for the Brazilian edition of National Geographic Magazine.
In Belize, the Belize Harpy Eagle Restoration Project began in 2003 with the collaboration of Sharon Matola, founder and director of the Belize Zoo and the Peregrine Fund. The goal of this project was the re-establishment of the harpy eagle within Belize. The population of the eagle declined as a result of forest fragmentation, shooting, and nest destruction, resulting in near extirpation of the species. Captive-bred harpy eagles were released in the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area in Belize, chosen for its quality forest habitat and linkages with Guatemala and Mexico. Habitat linkage with Guatemala and Mexico were important for conservation of quality habitat and the harpy eagle on a regional level. As of November 2009, 14 harpy eagles have been released and are monitored by the Peregrine Fund, through satellite telemetry.
In January 2009, a chick from the all-but-extirpated population in the Brazilian state of Paraná was hatched in captivity at the preserve kept in the vicinity of the Itaipu Dam by the Brazilian/Paraguayan state-owned company Itaipu Binacional. In September 2009, an adult female, after being kept captive for 12 years in a private reservation, was fitted with a radio transmitter before being restored to the wild in the vicinity of the Pau Brasil National Park (formerly Monte Pascoal NP), in the state of Bahia.
In December 2009, a 15th harpy eagle was released into the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area in Belize. The release was set to tie in with the United Nations Climate Change Conference 2009, in Copenhagen. The 15th eagle, nicknamed «Hope» by the Peregrine officials in Panama, was the «poster child» for forest conservation in Belize, a developing country, and the importance of these activities in relation to climate change. The event received coverage from Belize’s major media entities, and was supported and attended by the U.S. Ambassador to Belize, Vinai Thummalapally, and British High Commissioner to Belize, Pat Ashworth.
In Colombia, as of 2007, an adult male and a subadult female confiscated from wildlife trafficking were restored to the wild and monitored in Paramillo National Parkin Córdoba, and another couple was being kept in captivity at a research center for breeding and eventual release. A monitoring effort with the help of volunteers from local Native American communities is also being made in Ecuador, including the joint sponsorship of various Spanish universities—this effort being similar to another one going on since 1996 in Peru, centered around a native community in the Tambopata Province, Madre de Dios Region. Another monitoring project, begun in 1992, was operating as of 2005 in the state of Bolívar, Venezuela.
The harpy eagle is the national bird of Panama and is depicted on the coat of arms of Panama. The 15th harpy eagle released in Belize, named «Hope», was dubbed «Ambassador for Climate Change», in light of the United Nations Climate Change Conference 2009.
The harpy eagle was the inspiration behind the design of Fawkes the Phoenix in the Harry Potter film series. A live harpy eagle was used to portray the now-extinct Haast’s eagle in BBC’s Monsters We Met.