Jabirú/Jabiru/Jabiru mycteria

Nombre en español: Jabirú

Nombre en ingles: Jabiru

Nombre científico: Jabiru mycteria

Familia: Ciconiidae

Foto: Nick Athanas/Francisco Piedrahita

Canto: Andrew Spencer

El jabirútuyuyu o jabirú americano2 (Jabiru mycteria) es una especie de ave ciconiforme de la familia Ciconiidae; es la mayor cigüeña del Nuevo Mundo. Con una altura de 120-140 cm y una envergadura (alas desplegadas) de 3 metros, es una ave inconfundible de los humedales americanos desde Yucatán hasta la pampa argentina, siendo abundante en zonas como los llanos venezolanos o el pantanal. Se parece bastante a su pariente, el marabú africano, pero a diferencia de este no come cadáveres aunque sea carnívoro, prefiere pescar dentro del agua. También es común encontrarlos en los llanos de Bolivia. No es un ave sociable. Se le encuentra en solitario; las parejas construyen nidos voluminosos sobre grandes árboles, con puestas de 2 a 4 huevos.

Es el ave voladora más alta de Centro y Sudamérica, y la segunda del continente en envergadura superada por el cóndor andino (Vultur gryphus).

En Venezuela se le conoce como garzón soldado y en Costa Rica es conocido como Galán sin ventura.

Etimología

Su nombre proviene del idioma guaraní y significa “cuello hinchado”, en referencia a su capacidad de inflar a voluntad los sacos aéreos subcutáneos ubicados en el cuello. En la zona norte de Argentina y en Paraguay recibe varios nombres populares como “Tuyuyú coral” o “Tuyuyú cuartelero”.

Características

Es un ave muda, no tiene voces ni cantos y se comunica mediante golpeteos del pico. La pareja vive unida de por vida. Año tras año a fines del otoño, vuelven a su enorme nido ubicado en lo más alto de un árbol o palmera para criar tres o cuatro pichones, los cuales incubarán por turnos la hembra y el macho. Vive cerca de lagunas y ríos, se alimenta de gran cantidad de peces, moluscos y anfibios, ocasionalmente también come reptiles y pequeños mamíferos. Construye su nido en la cima de los árboles más altos.

Jabiru

The jabiru (dʒæbɪˈruː/ or /ˈdʒæbɪruː/; Latin: Jabiru mycteria) is a large stork found in the Americas from Mexico to Argentina, except west of the Andes. It is most common in the Pantanal region of Brazil and the Eastern Chaco region of Paraguay. It is the only member of the genus Jabiru. The name comes from a Tupi–Guaraní language and means “swollen neck”.

Taxonomy

Hinrich Lichtenstein described the jabiru in 1819. The name jabiru has also been used for two other birds of a distinct genus: black-necked stork (Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus), commonly called “jabiru” in Australia; and sometimes also for the saddle-billed stork (Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis) of Sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, Gardiner’s Egyptian hieroglyph G29, believed to depict an E. senegalensis, is sometimes labeled “jabiru” in hieroglyph lists. The Ephippiorhynchus are believed to be the jabiru’s closest living cousins, indicating an Old World origin for the species.[

The proposed Late Pleistocene fossil stork genus Prociconia from Brazil might actually belong in Jabiru. A fossil species of jabiru was found in the early Pliocene Codore Formation near Urumaco, Venezuela.[

In Portuguese, the bird is called jabirujaburutuiuiutuim-de-papo-vermelho (“red-necked tuim“, in Mato Grosso) and cauauá(in the Amazon Basin). The name tuiuiu is also used in southern Brazil for the wood stork (Mycteria americana).

Description

Closeup of head

The jabiru is the tallest flying bird found in South America and Central America, often standing nearly the same height as the flightless and thus much heavier American rhea. For the continent, it also has the second largest wingspan, after the Andean condor (that is, excluding the great albatross occasionally found off the coast of southern South America).[2] The adult jabiru is 120–140 cm (47–55 in) long, 2.3–2.8 m (7.5–9.2 ft) across the wings, and can weigh 4.3–9 kg (9.5–19.8 lb).[2] Sexual dimorphism is high, possibly the highest of any stork, with males being about 25% larger than females. Males weigh an average of 6.89 kg (15.2 lb) whereas females weigh an average of 5.22 kg (11.5 lb). Large males may stand as tall as 1.53 m (5.0 ft). The beak, which measures 25–35 cm (9.8–13.8 in), is black and broad, slightly upturned, ending in a sharp point. Among other standard measurements, the tail measures 20–25 cm (7.9–9.8 in), the tarsus measures 28.5–39 cm (11.2–15.4 in) long and the wing chord measures 58.5–73 cm (23.0–28.7 in).[ The plumage is mostly white, but the head and upper neck are featherless and black, with a featherless red stretchable pouch at the base. The sexes are similar in appearance but the male is larger, which can be noticeable when the sexes are together. While it can give the impression of being an ungainly bird on the ground, the jabiru is a powerful and graceful flier.

Life history

Food and feeding habits

The jabiru lives in large groups near rivers and ponds, and eats prodigious quantities of fish, molluscs, and amphibians. It will occasionally eat reptiles, bird eggs and small mammals. It will even eat fresh carrion and dead fish, such as those that die during dry spells, and thus help maintain the quality of isolated bodies of water. They feed in flocks and usually forage by wading in shallow water. Jabirus detect prey more through tactile sensation than vision. They feed by holding their open bill at a 45 degree angle to the water. When prey is contacted, the storks close their bill, draw it out of the water, and throw their head back to swallow.[ It is an opportunistic feeder. In one instance when house mice experienced a population explosion in an agricultural area, and several hundred jabirus could be seen in each field feeding on the rodents (unusual for a bird that’s rarely seen in large numbers anywhere). On rare occasions, jabirus have been seen attempting to kleptoparasitize the two smaller storks it co-exists with, the wood and maguari storks.

Breeding

The nest of sticks is built by both parents around August–September (in the Southern Hemisphere) on tall trees, and enlarged at each succeeding season growing to several meters in diameter. Nests are often deeper than they are wide, they can be up to 1 m (3.3 ft) wide and 1.8 m (5.9 ft) deep.[5] Half a dozen nests may be built in close proximity, sometimes among nests of herons and other birds. The parents take turns incubating the clutch of two to five white eggs and are known to more territorial than usual against other jabirus during the brooding period. Raccoons and other storks (including their own species) are occasion predators of jabiru eggs, but most nest predators appear to avoid these huge-billed birds and there are no known predators of healthy adult jabirus. Although the young fledge around 110 days old, they often spend around another 3 months in the care of their parents. Because of this long length of time spent brooding, pairs have difficulty breeding in successive years. Less than half of active pairs in one season are active the next season. Only 25% of successful pairs are successful the next season. The lifespan average is 36 years.[

Conservation

Jabiru are widespread but not abundant in any area. They are considered a species of least concern by the IUCN, an improvement from a status of near threatened in 1988.[ Jabiru gained protected status in Belize in 1973. Since then, their numbers in that area have slowly risen. They have been granted protected status by the U.S. Migratory Bird Act.

Wikipedia/eBird/xeno-canto

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