Nombre en español: Zarapito Trinador
Nombre en ingles: Whimbrel
Nombre científico: Numenius phaeopus
Foto: Daniel Avendaño/Juan Ochoa
Canto: Peter Boesman
El zarapito trinador (Numenius phaeopus) es una especie de ave caradriforme de la familia Scolopacidae.
Tiene un longitud de 41 centímetros, una envergadura de 82 centímetros y un peso de 430 gramos.
Se reconocen las siguientes subespecies:
- Numenius phaeopus phaeopus
- Numenius phaeopus alboaxillaris
- Numenius phaeopus variegatus
- Numenius phaeopus hudsonicus
The whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) is a wader in the large family Scolopacidae. It is one of the most widespread of the curlews, breeding across much of subarctic North America, Asia and Europe as far south as Scotland.
The whimbrel is a migratory bird wintering on coasts in Africa, southern North America, South America, and South Asia into Australasia. It is also a coastal bird during migration. It is fairly gregarious outside the breeding season.
This is a fairly large wader though mid-sized as a member of the curlew genus. The English name is imitative of the bird’s call. The genus name Numenius is from Ancient Greek noumenios, a bird mentioned by Hesychius. It is associated with the curlews because it appears to be derived from neos, “new” and mene “moon”, referring to the crescent-shaped bill. The species name phaeopus is the Medieval Latin name for the bird, from Ancient Greek phaios, “dusky” and pous, “foot”.
It is 37–47 cm (15–19 in) in length, 75–90 cm (30–35 in) in wingspan, and 270–493 g (9.5–17.4 oz; 0.595–1.087 lb) in weight. It is mainly greyish brown, with a white back and rump (subspecies N. p. phaeopus and N. p. alboaxillaris only), and a long curved bill (longest in the adult female) with a kink rather than a smooth curve. It is generally wary.
The usual call is a rippling whistle, prolonged into a trill for the song.
The only similar common species over most of this bird’s range are larger curlews. The whimbrel is smaller, has a shorter, decurved bill and has a central crown stripe and strong supercilia.
There are seven subspecies:
- N. p. islandicus – Brehm, C.L., 1831: breeds mainly in Iceland, but also in Greenland, Faroe Islands and Scotland; winters mainly in West Africa, but ranges from southwestern Europe to Benin and Togo
- N. p. phaeopus – (Linnaeus, 1758): nominate, found from Norway to north central Siberia
- N. p. alboaxillaris – Lowe, 1921: found from western Kazakhstan to southwestern Siberia (rare, endangered)
- N. p. rogachevae – Tomkovich, 2008: found in central Siberia
- N. p. variegatus – (Scopoli, 1786): found in northeastern Siberia
- N. p. rufiventris – Vigors, 1829: found in Alaska and northwestern Canada
- N. p. hudsonicus – Latham, 1790: (Hudsonian curlew) found in Hudson Bay area to northeastern Canada
This species feeds by probing soft mud for small invertebrates and by picking small crabs and similar prey off the surface. Before migration, berries become an important part of their diet. It has also been observed taking insects, specifically blue tiger butterflies.
The nest is a bare scrape on tundra or Arctic moorland. Three to five eggs are laid. Adults are very defensive of nesting area and will even attack humans who come too close.
Near the end of the 19th century, hunting on their migration routes took a heavy toll on this bird’s numbers; the population has since recovered.
In the Ireland and Britain, it breeds in Scotland, particularly around Shetland, Orkney, the Outer Hebrides as well as the mainland at Sutherland and Caithness.
The whimbrel is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies.