Gorrión Afelpado/Plushcap/Catamblyrhynchus diadema

Foto: Steve Sanchez

Nombre en español: Gorrión Afelpado

Nombre en ingles: Plushcap

Nombre científico: Catamblyrhynchus diadema

Familia: Thraupidae

Canto: Andrew Spencer

El Cabecipeludo (Catamblyrhynchus diadema)​ es una especie de ave de la familia Thraupidae, siendo el único miembro del género Catamblyrhynchus.

Este distintivo pequeñín es poco común en el sotobosque de las zonas subtropicales altas y templadas en los Andes, especialmente cerca de parches de bambú. Es rojizo intenso abajo y gris acerado arriba con la frente amarillo brillante. También nota el pico ancho y oscuro. Sexos similares. Usualmente se encuentra en pares o grupos pequeños, casi siempre siguiendo una bandada de especies mixtas.

Distribución

Posee un rango de 330.000 km², que comprende parte de Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, y Venezuela.​ Habita en bosques de montaña húmedos tropicales o subtropicales.

Alimentación

En el bosque nublado andino de Bolivia se alimenta de bambú.

Foto: Wilmer Quiceno

Taxonomía

La especie posee 3 subespecies:

  • C. diadema citrinifrons
  • C. diadema diadema
  • C. diadema federalis

Plushcap

The plushcap (Catamblyrhynchus diadema) is a species of bird in the family Thraupidae and it is the only member of the genus Catamblyrhynchus.

The plushcap is one of the most distinctive of all Neotropical passerines in both its appearance and behavior. The plushcap (Catamblyrhynchus diadema) was in its own family until recently when it was grouped with the tanagers. It is very distinct both physically and in its behavior. The bill is broad and black. The body is a chestnut color with a bright golden-yellow forecrown. The forecrown is made up of stiff feathers. It has been speculated that these short, dense feathers are less susceptible to feather wear and more resistant to moisture than typical feathers. This may be an adaptation for its specialized feeding mode, in which it probes into dense whorls of bamboo for its prey items (Hilty et al. 1979). Juveniles are just duller versions of their parents. They are found at high elevations from northern Venezuela south to Argentina, including the coastal mountains of Venezuela and the Andes of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and extreme northwestern Argentina. They live in montane forests and secondary forests near bamboo. They forage for insects inside the bamboo. They will eat small insects, berries, and small plant matter.

The bird is very distinct and is not confused with many other birds. It stands out from the other tanagers, only possibly being confused with the golden-crowned tanager despite the golden-crowned tanager being blue. The species is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is humid montane forests and it is always found in close association with Chusquea bamboo. It is typically found at elevations between 1,800 and 3,500 m.

Foto: Mary Torres

Taxonomy

There are three subspecies: Catamblyrhynchus diadema citrinifronsCatamblyrhynchus diadema diadema, and Catamblyrhynchus diadema federalis. The subspecies citrinifrons is found in Peru and has a paler cap while the federalis is in coastal Venezuela and is brighter than diadema.

Description

The plushcap is about 14 cm (5.5 in) long and males weigh on average 14.9 g (0.53 oz) and females 13.4 g (0.47 oz).[2] It has a chestnut body and a golden-yellow forecrown (the plush part of the name). From its nape to its wings, it is black. The males and females look the similar but the males are slightly larger than the females.

Vocalizations

While the plushcap is usually quiet, when it does vocalize it has a long series of chirps and twitters.

Habitat

Plushcaps prefer to live in montane forest or secondary woodland by Chusquea bamboo which they use to find food. They stay at high elevation, between 2,300–3,500 m (7,500–11,500 ft).

Foto: Hernán Arias

Distribution and conservation status

Plushcaps are considered of least concern due to their wide range in South America but it is thought that the number of individuals is declining. They tend to be common in their range.

Foto: Hernán Arias

Diet

The diet consists of small insects, berries, and plant material, and they typically forage in small groups within mixed species flocks of wide diversity. The plushcap looks for insects by probing and pushing its bill into the stems and leaf nodes of the bamboo and prying them open. They also forage by running their bill along the stems of bamboo with a series of tiny biting motions. Plushcaps will often hang upside down while searching for the insects.

The Plushcap is one of the most distinctive of all Neotropical passerines in terms of both its appearance and behavior. Its otherwise drab plumage is offset by a bright yellow patch of dense, velvety feathers on its forecrown. Hilty et al. (1979) speculated that these short, dense feathers are less susceptible to feather wear and more resistant to moisture than typical feathers. This may be an adaptation for its specialized feeding mode, in which it probes into dense whorls of bamboo for its prey items (Hilty et al. 1979). The species is found from Venezuela to south to extreme northwestern Argentina in humid montane forests and is always found in close association with Chusquea bamboo. Due to its distinct appearance and behavior, it long was classified in its own family. However, it is now recognized as a tanager, although its relationships within this group remain obscure. The diet consists of small insects and plant material, and they typically foraging in small groups within mixed species flocks. BirdLife International (2009) assesses the conservation status of the Plushcap as of Least Concern in view of its wide geographic distribution, although the size of the global population is believed to be in decline.

Fuentes: Wikipedia/eBird/xeno-canto/Neotropical Birds

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