Nombre en español: Periquito enano
Nombre en inglés: Riparian Parrotlet
Nombre científico: Forpus crassirostris
El Periquito enano (Forpus crassirostris) es una especie de ave de la familia de los loros (Psittacidae) típica de América del Sur.
Es un perico pequeño, que sólo mide unos 13 cm; es casi por entero de color verde, con las partes inferiores más claras; el pico es pequeño pero fuerte, y es de un tono blanco rosado. Presentan un marcado dimorfismo sexual; el macho tiene las plumas de vuelo de color azul claro y oscuro, (la espalda también tiene esta coloración). La hembra es totalmente verde, a veces con amarillo pálido alrededor de los ojos.
Se reúnen en parejas o en pequeños grupos, que son bastante ruidosos. Por su plumaje son difíciles de ver entre el follaje. Su vuelo es rápido, aunque errático.
Las cotorritas aliazules son loros monógamos. Hacen sus nidos en cavidades de ramas y troncos, y a veces en nidos de otras aves. Ponen de 3 a 7 huevos.
Se lo puede encontrar en Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador y Perú
Son bastante comunes en las zonas abiertas y, aunque el bosque está siendo talado, las poblaciones no han sido muy afectadas; incluso se les puede ver merodeando en los alrededores de los árboles caídos, buscando alimento.
The Riparian Parrotlet (Forpus crassirostris) is a species of parrot in the family Psittacidae.
Distribution and habitat
Are found in much of central and northern South America. Their range is split by each subspecies, as described above. It is generally common and widespread, though more localized in the Amazon Basin.
Are mainly found in lowlands. They occur in dry and riparian woodlands, cerrado, caatinga, palm groves, semi-arid scrubland, savanna, and pastures. Tend to avoid densely forested areas. They are not found at altitudes above 1,200 metres (3,900 ft).
The number of cobalt-rumped parrotlets is unknown, but the population is stable. It is listed as Least Concern by the IUCN Red List. The number of wild individuals is unknown.
The cobalt-rumped parrotlet is not known to be affected by deforestation or the pet trade, unlike many of its close relatives in the genus Forpus. There are many areas across its range that are already protected.
Behavior and ecology
Flocks are usually around 20 birds but can grow to over 50 around fruiting trees or seeding grasses. They are highly social and gregarious. Tend to feed in groups, usually between 2 and 12 individuals.
Cobalt-rumped parrotlets call while in flight and perched. Their calls are high-pitched «sheet» or «zeet» screeches or twittering. When feeding and socializing in large groups they make twittering and chattering noises.
Breeding season is May to August, but occupied nests have been observed in July, January, and March in different areas of the birds’ range. Females lay 3-7 small, white, roughly spherical eggs. Some have been observed to scrape rufous hornero nests (made of clay) with their beaks. Though the reason for this is not entirely clear, nests created by rufous horneros have been used by cobalt-rumped parrotlets to raise their broods, which has led to the suggestion that the parrotlets are «taste-testing» the nest material to determine whether it is suitable, according to unknown standards, for their needs. However, similar studies of other Forpus species have concluded that clay-licking provides important minerals to the birds that otherwise would not be accessible.
Cobalt-rumped parrotlets mostly feed on Cecropia sp. and Ficus sp. fruits, Mikania sp. and Trema micrantha seeds, and Ambrosia sp., Handroanthus serratifolius, and Marcgravia sp. flowers. However, they are known to occasionally feed on other plants such as grass. Cobalt-rumped parrotlets have been known to migrate locally based on the flowering and fruiting seasons of some of the main plants of their diet.
For many years, the cobalt-rumped parrotlet was considered conspecific with the green-rumped parrotlet (Forpus passerinus), but today all authorities recognize the two as separate species. The turquoise-winged parrotlet (F. spengeli) and the riparian parrotlet (F. crassirostris) were also considered conspecific with the cobalt-rumped parrotlet until studies in 2015 pointed out the error in this classification based on morphological and geographical differences. However, some taxonomic authorities, including the American Ornithological Society, still consider them so.
The cobalt-rumped parrotlet, at least until 2021, is a rare case in which the common name has been more stable than the binomial. F. xanthopterygius initially referred to what are now considered two distinct species: the cobalt-rumped parrotlet (then referred to as the blue-winged parrotlet) and the white-winged parakeet (Brotogeris versicolurus). In 1945, the Brazilian ornithologist Olivério Pinto discarded the name F. xanthopterygius for the blue-winged parrotlet and renamed it F. crassirostris (which now applies to the closely related riparian parrotlet). During the same year, the blue-winged parrotlet was mistakenly recorded as F. xanthopterygius crassirostris and was again reverted to F. xanthopterygius. In 1978, Pinto mentioned the mistake in Novo Catálogo das Aves do Brazil and the name was changed to F. crassirostris. However, as was pointed out in 1999, the original name (F. xanthopterygius) remains valid per ICZN rules. Consequently, this name was re-applied to the blue-winged parrotlet. In 2021, the species was renamed from blue-winged parrotlet to cobalt-rumped parrotlet by the IOC, marking the first major change to the common name of the species. Additionally, the name of the nominate subspecies also changed: F. x. xanthopterygius is the subspecies formerly listed as F. crassirostris vividus.