Nombre en español: Jacamar Lúgubre
Nombre en inglés: Brown Jacamar
Nombre científico: Brachygalba lugubris
El jacamará pardo (Brachygalba lugubris), también denominado jacamar lúgubre (en Colombia), jacamar café (en Ecuador), jacamar purpúreo , barranquero castaño (en Venezuela) o jacamar pardo (en Perú), es una especie de ave piciforme de la familia Galbulidae. Es nativo del centro y norte de Sudamérica.
Distribución y hábitat
Se encuentra en Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, la Guayana francesa, Guyana, Perú, Surinam y Venezuela.
Sus hábitats naturales son las selvas húmedas tropicales de regiones bajas.
The brown jacamar (Brachygalba lugubris) is a species of bird in the family Galbulidae. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical and tropical moist lowland forests and heavily degraded former forest. This bird was originally described by William John Swainson in 1838. This bird is feed on insects, especially for flying insects.
Brown jacamar is a small jacamar, with mostly brown body with a pair of glossy purple wings. Brown jacamar has a black bill and a dark-throat. This bird is also has sooty-black face. Brown jacamar can be weigh up from 16-23 g, with the length about 14–18 cm. This bird is insectivore.
14–18 cm; 16–23 g . Upperparts, including crown, sooty-brown , lower back darker, glossed greenish black; diffuse pale supercilium; wings and tail blackish with slight blue sheen, absent on primaries; chin and throat whitish, breast and flanks rufescent-brown, lower breast and belly whitish or occasionally buffy, undertail-coverts rufescent-brown; bill 4–5 cm long (3·4–4·2 cm from nostril), slender, straight, generally black; iris dark brown or pale blue; bare eyering blackish brown; feet black, base of tarsi sometimes yellowish. Juvenile overall slightly paler, with vestigial pale eyebrows and throat, and always has dark iris. Races differ from nominate in tone and intensity of colour on upperparts and breast, S races generally with yellowish bill base, paler eyes, yellow eyering: fulviventris has browner upperparts and breast, buffy belly; obscuriceps has blackish crown, dark brown upperparts and breast, rufescent-brownish or buffy rest of underparts; caquetae has crown tipped pale ochraceous-buff, nape, mantle and breast more rufescent, lower back to uppertail-coverts more blackish; phaeonota is more uniform, darker, less rufescent on upperparts, throat, breast, flanks and undertail-coverts, isolating dirty white belly, the feathers of chin and upper throat with whitish shaft streaks and rufescent tips; naumburgae is dark brown above, black wings and tail glossed greenish, blackish below with white throat and belly ; melanosterna similar to previous, but proximal half or whole of lower mandible pale yellow, eyes pale blue.
Closely related to B. albogularis, B. goeringi and B. salmoni. No contact or intergradation between races is known, and potential zones of overlap merit investigation in order to elucidate taxonomic relationships. Race phaeonota, known only from the type specimen, was initially described as a separate species, but considered probably a form of present species; further research necessary to confirm its taxonomic placement or, indeed, its validity. NE Brazil race naumburgae previously listed as naumburgi, but emended to feminine form on basis of internal information; this race and melanosterna previously treated as constituting a separate species, and their taxonomic status may require reassessment. Seven subspecies recognized.
Brachygalba lugubris fulviventris
E of Andes in C Colombia (Buenavista, Villavicencio).
Brachygalba lugubris caquetae
S Colombia E of Andes (S from Caquetá) S to E Ecuador and N Peru.
Brachygalba lugubris lugubris
E and S Venezuela through the Guianas and N Brazil (E Roraima and Amapá).
Brachygalba lugubris obscuriceps
S Venezuela (upper Orinoco region, R Ocamo) and NW Brazil (upper R Padauiri, R Negro).
Brachygalba lugubris naumburgae
NE Brazil (Maranhão, Piauí).
Brachygalba lugubris melanosterna
E Bolivia (Santa Cruz) and C and S Brazil (Pará S to Rondônia, Mato Grosso, Goiás, W Minas Gerais, W São Paulo).
Brachygalba lugubris phaeonota
W Brazil at Tonantins (on R Solimões in W Amazonas).
Canopy, edges and shrubby clearings of primary and secondary terra firme, várzea and gallery forest, rarely cloudforest, also open savanna woodland, most often on riverbanks with scattered trees and shrubs; frequently on white-sand soils in some parts of range, including campina in S Amazonas (Brazil); usually in lowlands to 900 m, but records extend to 1500 m in S Venezuela.
Diet and Foraging
Diet includes Hymenoptera (e.g. 12-mm Apidae, Vespidae, Chrysididae), Coleoptera (e.g. 7-mm Staphylinidae, Curculionidae), Homoptera (e.g. cicadas), Diptera (e.g. Tabanidae) and Lepidoptera . Perches in pairs or small parties (often of 6–7 birds, occasionally more) on exposed branches in upper canopy, less commonly down almost to ground level; often beside or over water. Sallies from perch for flying insects .
Sounds and Vocal Behavior
High, insect-like descending “tick tick tick ti ti ti ti tit t t t” or “plee, plee, plee-plee-plee’ple’pe’pe’e’e’e”, terminating in stuttering trill; call a very high, sharp whistle, “hilew”, rather different from Galbula calls, or lower “chewee”. Vocalizations very similar to those of Brachygalba albogularis.
Family with three juveniles in late Mar and birds in breeding condition in late May in Colombia. No further information available; presumably breeds in arboreal termitarium or in burrow dug into bank.
Not globally threatened. Fairly common locally throughout much of range, including Surinam, French Guiana, and W Brazil (Rondônia); was previously considered abundant, at least seasonally, in S Brazil. Generally uncommon in E Ecuador, but numerous at Limoncocha; uncommon in N Peru. Occurs in Imataca Forest Reserve and El Dorado, Venezuela, in Amacayacu National Park, Colombia, and in Chapada dos Guimarães National Park and the mosiac of protected areas in the Serra dos Carajás , Brazil. Although sensitive to wholesale deforestation, its habitat requirements suggest that selective logging would not be a threat. Race phaeonota, known only from type locality, requires further study to clarify its conservation status and range.
Fuente: Wikipedia/eBird/xeno-canto/Birds of the world