Espatulilla Collareja/Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher/Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum

Foto: Elvis Felipe Quintero

Nombre en español: Espatulilla Collareja

Nombre en ingles: Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher

Nombre científico: Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum

Familia: Tyrannidae

Canto: Andrew Spencer

El titirijí cejiamarillo (Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum) es una especie de ave paseriforme perteneciente al género Todirostrum que integra la familia Tyrannidae. Se encuentra principalmente al sur de la Cuenca del Amazonas de Brasil, también en la Amazonía de Colombia, Ecuador, Perú y Bolivia; la especie se registra en Venezuela.


Su hábitats naturales son los bosques húmedos subtropicales o tropicales de las tierras bajas, pantanos tropicales o subtropicales y bosques antiguos muy degradados.

Foto: Brayan Coral


La distribución de la titirijí cejiamarillo es principalmente en la cuenca sur del Amazonas, y en el este limita con el río Amazonas, en el sureste, su alcance se extiende hacia el este, incluyendo Ilha de Marajó y la última región aguas abajo de tan sólo el río Tocantins , del sistema del río Araguaia-Tocantins. Esta extensión al sureste de la gama termina en el centro(norte) del estado de Maranhão, en la región de Bahía de São Marcos en el Océano Atlántico.

En la cuenca occidental del Amazonas, se extiende en las regiones del sur de la cuenca del noroeste, y está limitada por el Río Negro que se extiende a sus afluentes aguas arriba en el centro-sur de Colombia.

Foto: Julian Zuleta

Yellow-browed tody-flycatcher

The yellow-browed tody-flycatcher (Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum) is a species of bird in the family Tyrannidae, the tyrant flycatchers. It is found mainly in the southern Amazon Basin of Brazil, also Amazonian Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia; the species is recorded in Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical swamps, and heavily degraded former forest.

Foto; Francisco Piedrahita


Southern Amazon Basin and Rio Negro

The range of the yellow-browed tody-flycatcher is mainly in the southern Amazon Basin, and in the east limited by the Amazon River; in the southeast, its range extends eastward including Ilha de Marajo and the last downstream region of only the Tocantins River, of the Araguaia-Tocantins River system. This southeast extension of the range ends in central-(northern) Maranhão state, in the Baia de Sao Marcos region at the Atlantic Ocean.

In the western Amazon Basin, it ranges into the southern regions of the northwest Basin, and is limited by the Rio Negro that extends to its upstream tributaries in south-central Colombia.

Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher forms a superspecies with Painted Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum pictum) of the Guianan Shield, and with Black-headed Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum nigriceps) of northwestern South America and southern Central America. Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher is exclusively found south of the Amazon and the Rio Negro, and occurs from southeast Colombia to northern Bolivia, as well as across Brazil to the state of Maranhão near the mouth of the Amazon. It is usually uncommon, and the species is easily overlooked without familiarity of its vocal repertoire. This bird inhabits both terra firme and seasonally flooded forests, and has been found to at least 1400 m. It is usually found in the canopy, but rarely accompanies flocks; like other Todirostrum it prefers to forage alone or in pairs. The nest is a pendant globular structure, constructed up to 35 m above the ground, but detailed studies of breeding behavior are still required.

Foto: Rodrigo Gaviria

Distinguishing Characteristics

Todirostrum are small insectivorous flycatchers with bills that are notably long and relatively broad and flattened (recalling a tody, Todus, of the West Indies). Tody-flycatchers forage as singles or in pairs, not with mixed-species flocks, and often hold the tail partially cocked. The dominant plumage colors of Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher are black, yellow and green. In all populations, the crown and sides of the head are black, with a broad yellow supercilium that extends from just behind the eye back to the nape. The back is green, and the underparts are bright yellow; in some subspecies, the breast also is narrowly streaked with black.

Similar Species

Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher is distinctive in appearance, and is unlikely to confused with any other species within its range. Common Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum cinereum) lacks the prominent yellow brow, has grayer upperparts and a longer tail, and does not have black streaking on the underparts. The underparts of Spotted Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum maculatum) are yellow, marked with black, but Spotted has a gray (not black) crown and lacks the prominent yellow brow. Golden-winged Tody-Flycatcher (Poecilotriccus calopterus) lacks the prominent yellow brow, has chestnut lesser wing coverts and a white throat, and occurs in dense understory (not in the canopy).

Foto: Nick Athanas

Detailed Description

The following description is based on Walther (2004), and refers to nominate chrysocrotaphum; see also Geographic Variation.

Foto: Elvis Felipe Quintero

Adult: Sexes similar. Crown and sides of head black, with broad yellow postocular supercilium and white supraloral spot. Back, scapulars, and rump olive. Wings black; wing coverts narrowly margined with, and broadly tipped with, yellow; remiges margined with yellow. Rectrices black. Underparts bright yellow, with narrow black streaks at side of throat and across breast.

Fuentes: Wikipedia/eBird/xeno-canto/Neotropical Birds

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