Foto: Nick Athanas
Nombre en español: Eufonia Verdidorada
Nombre en inglés: Golden-bellied Euphonia
Nombre científico: Euphonia chrysopasta
El fruterito de vientre dorado (Euphonia chrysopasta) es una especie de ave paseriforme que vive en América del Sur. Su taxonomía es incierta, tradicionalmente su género se situaba en Thraupidae mientras que actualmente algunos expertos lo sitúan en la familia Fringillidae.
El fruterito de vientre dorado mide de 10 a 12 cm de longitud. El macho es uniformemente verde oliváceo, con listas lorales claras, nuca grisácea y vientre amarillo. La hembra tiene la garganta y el vientre color gris blancuzco.
Distribución y hábitat
Se encuentra en Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, la Guayana francesa, Guyana, Perú, Surinam y Venezuela.
Vive en las tierras bajas de la Amazonia, en el borde del bosque y matorrales, tanto en tierra firme como en áreas inundables.
Se alimenta de frutos, solo o en pequeños grupos ruidosos en lo alto de dosel.
Construye un nido en forma de bola con una entrada lateral.
The white-lored euphonia or golden-bellied euphonia (Euphonia chrysopasta) is a songbird species of the family Fringillidae, having recently been moved there from the Thraupidae.
It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela.
Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and subtropical or tropical swamps.
Also known as the White-lored Euphonia, this species is relatively unusual among this genus in showing only weak sexual dimorphism. Both sexes are mainly olive above with prominent white lores, a grayish cap, and a chunky bill, but males generally have more heavily yellow-saturated underparts. The White-lored Euphonia is found widely across the lowlands of Amazonia, especially over the northern half of the basin, in both tall terra firme and lower stature seasonally flooded forests, and it is often found in the company of mixed-species canopy or edge flocks. It is rarely found with other euphonias.
9–10 cm; 11–16·2 g. Small, comparatively plain euphonia, male with female-type plumage, bill noticeably thick and with cutting edges not quite straight (like slightly crooked grin). Male nominate race has base of forehead to chin and cheeks ashy whitish-grey, forming fairly conspicuous oval-shaped area of white surrounding bill (like a “milk moustache”); forecrown olive, with narrow dusky border at front, rest of crown and nape greyish; upperparts, including upperwing-coverts, olive-green with bluish-grey gloss, uppertail-coverts paler; uppertail olive; flight-feathers dusky, edged and tinged olive-green; mostly yellow below, slight olive tinge on sides and becoming clear yellow on centre of belly and undertail-coverts; undertail plain greyish (no white); iris dark brown; bill blackish, basal half or more of lower mandible greyish; legs horn-grey. Female is much like male above, but considerably duller, with whitish around bill less extensive, side of head yellowish-olive; mostly grey below, with sides, flanks and undertail-coverts olive-yellow. Juvenile apparently undescribed. Race nitida is slightly smaller than nominate, male having less grey on crown and nape, slightly duller underparts.
Euphonia chrysopasta chrysopasta Scientific name definitions
SE Colombia (from Meta) S through E Ecuador and E Peru to N Bolivia, and W and C Brazil (E to R Xingu and, in E Pará, to R Tocantins).
Euphonia chrysopasta nitida Scientific name definitions
extreme E Colombia (along R Orinoco), S Venezuela (S of Orinoco) E to French Guiana, and N Brazil N of R Amazon.
Canopy of humid terra firme and várzea forest, tree-scattered shady clearings, forest borders and tall second-growth woodland. Lowlands to c. 1000 m, occasionally to 1300 m.
Diet and Foraging
Fruits and insects. One stomach contained only seeds. Usually seen in pairs, less often singly or in small groups of up to about six individuals; at times joins mixed-species flocks. Forages in clumps of mistletoe (Loranthaceae) high in forest canopy or in fruiting trees, where sometimes with other members of genus; typically stays high up and searches for insects by foraging on long slender bare twigs, sometimes going out to tip. Occasionally descends low along forest borders and in clearings with trees when visiting fruiting shrubs and other small trees.
Sounds and Vocal Behavior
Calls include variety of smacking notes and short whistles; one of commonest calls a rather loud buzzy “spitz wéet!” repeated over and over, and a sharp, smacking “spitz!”. Lacks clear whistled calls of “black-and-yellow” euphonias. Male’s song, often from high bare twig in open (may nervously twitch or wag tail to one side, sometimes accompanied by bobbing of entire rear body up and down as it sings) a jumble of “chit, sit, spitz, week” and other notes, sputtering on in fits and starts, sometimes for several minutes, with pauses of varying length, e.g. “p-pfits’et cheéu…sit, fits…pa’fits-a-whew!…”, and so on. Some songs appear to be patterned, others more random in choice of notes and phrases.
Breeding reported in Aug in Ecuador, and numerous records in Aug and Sept in SE Peru. Nest built by both sexes, covered and football-shaped, with side entrance, made from various grassy material, moss, bits of leaves and ferns, even dry leaves, placed 5–35 m or more above ground (most often quite high) in crevice, or hidden in epiphytes, moss and ferns on side of large limb in canopy, sometimes on side of spiny palm trunk. No other information.
Conservation status on BirdlifeLC Least Concern Not globally threatened. Common and widespread across Amazonia. Occurs in a number of large protected areas, including Tinigua, Serranía de Chiribiquete, La Paya, Cahuinarí and Amacayacú National Parks (Colombia), Yasuní National Park and Cuyabeno Wildlife Reserve (Ecuador), Alto Purús and Manu National Parks and Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve (Peru), Madidi National Park (Bolivia) and Serra do Divisor, Jaú and Amazonica National Parks (Brazil). The species’ range also includes extensive intact habitat which, though unprotected, is at little near-term risk.